Genes influence global livestock disease risk

التهاب الجلد الرقمي: تؤثر الجينات على مخاطر الإصابة بأمراض الماشية العالمية

GWAS results for data batch 1 (herds 1-7). (a) Manhattan plot derived from the results of a GWAS analysis (Ensembl Genome Assembly UMD3.1) for the TBIN trait. (B) Manhattan plot obtained from the results of the GWAS analysis of the TCHRONA trait. In all -log10 plots the p-values ​​of the detected SNPs are shown arranged by chromosomes. The red line indicates the genome-wide false discovery rate (5%) (FDR). The colored dotted lines indicate the chromosome (5%) FDR with the line and the corresponding chromosome of the same colour. attributed to him: Frontiers in genetics (2022). DOI: 10.3389 / fgene.2022.859595

It is possible that two small mutations in the cattle genome are causing some animals to be significantly more susceptible to digital dermatitis, an extremely painful disease that spreads in cattle kept indoors. The two candidate genes were discovered by an international team of researchers from Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU), University of Göttingen and University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US, and the scientists analyzed data from more than 5,000 dairy cows. The results could help improve the breeding of disease-resistant animals. The results of the study were published in the journal Frontiers in genetics.

Digital dermatitis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Treponema. It affects the area between the claw of the hoof and the hairy part of the leg at the back of the foot. Says Professor Hermann Sawalef of the Institute of Agricultural and Food Sciences at MLU. He led the work together with Professor Bertram Brennig of the University of Göttingen. They have partnered with Professor Dörte Döpfer from the United States According to Sawalef, the disease is difficult to diagnose, because it appears in different stages. In addition to the acute phase, pathogens can also somewhat envelop themselves. However, there is always the possibility of another acute phase.

Since not all animals in the herd suffer from the disease, it is assumed, says Swalve, that there must be genetically resistant animals. A team from Germany and the United States achieved in genetic basis For this using DNA data and assay results from 5040 dairy cows From 13 large scale farms in eastern Germany. Extensive statistical analyzes have enabled scientists to identify regions of the cow genome related to the disease. CMPK2 and ASB16 have been considered as potential candidate genes. Both play a key role in the signaling pathways for cellular immune processes, for example in bacterial infections such as digital dermatitis. Further sequencing analyzes of candidate gene regions are revealed point mutationsthe so-called SNPs, at two loci, both of which showed a significant effect susceptibility to disease and chronic development illness.

To demonstrate their findings and also to explain the underlying mechanism affected by the mutations, the teams plan to further investigate using cell cultures. Existing results can already be used today to improve breeding practices and reduce susceptibility to digital dermatitis through extensive testing.

Claw teloma is hereditary primarily in cattle

more information:
Diana Oelschlaegel et al, Functional variants associated with CMPK2 and in ASB16 affecting bovine digital dermatitis, Frontiers in genetics (2022). DOI: 10.3389 / fgene.2022.859595

Submitted by Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

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